To understand why stem cell platelet-rich plasma or co-transplantation of Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and PRP is such a remarkable idea in regenerative medicine, let’s spend a little time looking at the mechanics of PRP.
Platelet-Rich Plasma’s Role As Repairmen
The one thing that makes Platelet-Rich Plasma a hero in several fields (if not all) of medicine is the fact that the diverse growth factors in it are able to stimulate stem cell proliferation and cell differentiation (the factors that determine effective tissue regeneration and healing) on any part of the body.
These growth factors are abundant in the blood and act as the natural repairmen of tissues.
In the perfect scenario, there’s plenty of blood flow to every part of the body and these “repairmen” are always on-call to address any healing needs that may arise. However, if the injured area has a poor blood supply — especially areas that are constantly move like tendons, ligaments, and joints — demand for these repairmen can outgrow supply. Meaning, healing (or regeneration of tissues) is put on hold until further repairmen are available.
The train of Platelet-Rich Plasma then arrives with enough of these repairmen to warrant the resumption of healing.
There’s another part of this picture we haven’t talked about so far: stem cells.
As far as Platelet-Rich Plasma and its growth factors are concerned, they are mere repairmen. They can’t do the work by themselves. They need the basic raw materials to work with. And that raw material here is the stem cells.
Stem cells are the ones actually being regenerated to form new tissues for healing.
Stem Cells As The Raw Materials For PRP
Stem cells are the only raw materials that PRP works with for regeneration. These are like the fundamental building blocks of all other cells. These cells can be guided into becoming specialized cells under the right conditions.
In addition, they can also divide themselves to form new stem cells or new specialized cells.
So for Platelet-Rich Plasma to work well, it needs to be applied to an area with lots of stem cells like the heart, liver, blood vessels, etc. Incidentally, Platelet-Rich Plasma’s healing properties were first discovered by cardiac surgeons who played with concentrated blood for faster healing of heart after surgery and it showed tremendous promise because stem cells are abundant in heart tissues.
But what if healing is needed in an area where there is not much stem cell?
With the new developments in stem cell technology that can be solved too. Because now we can supply the stem cells to areas where there are less like the joints, ligaments, and tendons. For this, scientists usually use “mesenchymal stem cell” or MSCs. These are cells isolated from the stroma and can differentiate to form adipocytes, cartilage, bone, tendons, muscle, and skin.
The easiest way is to harvest it from adipose tissue or fat that we call Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells or ADSC.
Supplying Both PRP And Stem Cells For Regeneration
In regions with hypoxia (poor blood supply) like joints, meniscus tissue, rotator cuff, spinal discs, etc. the supply of platelets (and therefore growth factors) as well as the stem cells are limited. So what if we supplied both the stem cells and Platelet-Rich Plasma for triggering the regeneration process?
They used Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSC), which is known for their ease of isolation and extensive differentiation potential. These researchers noted that these stem cells often couldn’t survive in areas of local hypoxia, oxidative stress, and inflammation – thereby making them ineffective. However, when Platelet-Rich Plasma (or thrombin-activated PRP) is added to ADSC, it kept them alive for prolonged periods and the growth factors in the Platelet-Rich Plasma triggered cell differentiation and proliferation more easily.
Why This Exact Combination Is The Future
Done this way, both Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSC) and Platelet-Rich Plasma are raw materials for healing that’s already available in plenty in almost everyone (there are exceptions of course). That means, for complete healing to take place this combination treatment, still in its very primitive stage of development, may have the potential to replace expensive synthetic drugs that carry complex unexplained side effects. The procedure takes our body’s natural healing agents — stem cells from body fat and PRP from blood — and then injects it inside the knee or other joints (or other areas where they are insufficient) for regeneration.
Isn’t that like the most wonderful thing ever?
Whether its cartilage cell, or a bone cell, or a collagen cell for ligaments and tendons that needs to be healed, all you need is a same-day procedure by a local, but specialized doctor, using the natural ingredients of the body.
I believe this special combo is a huge win for Platelet-Rich Plasma.
The Challenges For Growing Adoption Of This Treatment
We know Platelet-Rich Plasma has safe, yet high-speed recovery potential with its multiple growth factors. And it is effective in regenerative healing of cartilage injuries – the toughest injuries to heal – as well as Osteoarthritis. However, the challenges are Platelet Quality. We need to somehow ensure the Platelet-Rich Plasma quality is uniform. Currently, it varies from two to several folds above baseline concentration based on the donor’s physical condition.
Next, we need to identify the exact PRP growth factors that promote ADSC proliferation. Scientists believe growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermal growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor stimulate stem cell proliferation while some growth factors under certain conditions are known to inhibit the process.
The percentage of PRP matters too. 5 percent, 10 percent, 15 percent, and 20 percent Platelet-Rich Plasma in ADSC are tested by scientists.
The Only Treatment In Modern Medicine For Cartilage Regeneration
The bottom line is that Stem Cell Platelet-Rich Plasma or ADSC + PRP procedure is the only treatment in modern medicine that has shown cartilage regeneration. So it’s too important to ignore. And it could one of greatest advances that science has brought to the millions of people suffering from serious pain in their joints, knee, and spine as well people suffering from all kinds of tendon diseases and injuries.
Precision Pain Care and Rehabilitation has two convenient locations in the Richmond Hill – Queens and New Hyde Park – Long Island. Call the Richmond Hill office at (718) 215-1888, or (516) 419-4480 for Long Island office, to arrange an appointment with our Interventional Pain Management Specialist, Dr. Jeffrey Chacko.